All praise is for Allah, may peace and blessings be upon our noble master Muhammad, upon his pure family and his noble companions. Respected readers, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is the Lord of the universe, everything is in His control. Whenever we need something it is important that we turn to Allah and ask him to fulfil our needs and wants.
Allah says in the Holy Quran ‘And your Lord says: “Call on Me; I will answer your Prayer’ (surah 40 verse 60)
Rasoolullah sallalaho alayhi wasallam has also emphasized the importance of making duaa on numerous occasions. He sallalaho alayhi wasallam has described duaa as ‘the essence of worship’ (Tirmidhi). Another hadith states that‘Verily your Lord is Generous and Shy. If His servant raises his hands to Him (in supplication) He becomes shy to return them empty’ (Musnad e Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi)
Salah is such that it must be performed at its prescribed times, Allah says in the Holy Quran ‘Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.’ (surah 4 verse 130). And there are certain times in the day when we can not perform salah e.g. after Fajr until sunrise, at zawwal time and after Asr until Maghreb.
Also a person who performs salah is required to be in the state of wudhu, Rasoolullah sallalaho alayhi wasallam said ‘The key to jannah is salah and the key to salah is wudhu’ (musnad Ahmad). If a person performs salah without wudhu it will not be valid.However, duaa is such an ibadah that it can be done at any time of the day, even at those times when salah is prohibited and one is not even required to be in a state of wudhu. We should always ask Allah to fulfil our needs, no matter how small. Rasoolullah sallalaho alayhi wasallam said: “Everyone should ask his Creator for all his needs be it even salt or be it a shoelace when it breaks.” (Tirmidhi)
There are certain times when a duaa is more likely to be accepted by Allah. Inshallah some of these times shall be cited below with the supporting ahaadith.
The Last Third Of The Night
‘In the last third of every night our Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) (Allah (SWT)) descends to the lowermost heaven and says; “Who is calling Me, so that I may answer him? Who is asking Me so that may I grant him? Who is seeking forgiveness from Me so that I may forgive him?.”‘ (Bukhari)
‘The closest any worshipper can be to His Lord is during the last part of the night, so if you can be amongst those who remember Allah at that time, then do so.'(Tirmidhi, Nasai, Haakim)
‘There is at night an hour, no Muslim happens to be asking Allah any matter of this world or the Hereafter, except that he will be given it, and this (occurs) every night.’
Between Adhan and Iqamah
‘A supplication made between the Adhan and Iqama is not rejected.’
(Musnad e Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Sahih al-Jami, Nasai and Ibn Hibbaan graded it sahih)
Abdullah ibn Amr narrates that a man said ‘oh Rasoolullah, the muadhins have superiority to us (in virtue).’ the messenger of Allah sallalaho alayhi wasallam then said ‘you also utter as they do, then ask Allah and you will be given (He will accept your duuas)’ (Abu Dawud,Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibbaan graded it sahih (sound) and Ibn Hajr al Asqalani graded it is hasan)
‘Seek the response to your duaas when the armies meet, and the prayer is called, and when rain falls’ (reported by Imam Shafiee in al-Umm, al-Sahihah #1469)
‘When the prayer is called, the doors of the skies are opened, and the duaa is answered’ (al-Tayalisi in his Musnad #2106, al-Sahihah #1413)
An Hour On Friday
‘There is an hour on Friday and if a Muslim gets it while offering Salat (prayer) and asks something from Allah (SWT), then Allah (SWT) will definitely meet his demand.’ And he the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam pointed out the shortness of that particular time with his hands. (Bukhari)
Some scholars have said that this hour is from the time the Imam enters the mosque on Friday’s prayer until the prayer is over whereas others have said that it is the last hour of the day (after the Asr prayer until the Maghrib prayer). Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal were also in support of the view that duaa is readily accepted at the last moments before Maghreb on a Friday.
‘the nearest a slave can be to his Lord is when he is prostrating, so invoke (supplicate) Allah (SWT) much in it.’ (Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai, Sahih al-Jami #1175)
At The End Of The Obligatory Salat
Abu Umamah (RA) narrates that Allah’s Messenger sallalaho alayhi wasallam was asked, O Messenger of Allah, which supplication is heard (by Allah (SWT), he said the end of the night and at the end of the obligatory Salat (prayer) (Tirmidhi)
The majority of scholars use ahaadith like this and say that duaa can be made after the fardh salah and there is a second opinion held by Imam Ibn Taymiyah and haafidh Ibn qayim al Jawziyah who were of the opinion that this hadith refers to making duaa after the tashahud , and before making Tasleem (finishing prayer)
The Night Of power/laylat ul Qadr
This night is the greatest night of the year. This is the night which the almighty Allah (SWT) said about it, “The night of Al-Qadar (Decree) is better than a thousand months.” [Surah al-Qadr, 97: 3]
Anas R.A. reports that Rasulullah S.W. SW said, “On the Night or Power Jibraeel A.S. descends to the earth with the group of angels, praying for blessings on every servant of Allah they see standing in worship or sitting and celebrating Allah’s praises. Then on the day of ‘Iyd. Allah boasts about them to the angels, “O angels, what is the reward of that employee who had fully completed his service?” they reply, ‘Oh our Sustainer, his reward should be given in full’. To this Allah replies; ‘O my angels, verily My servants, the males among them as well as the females have performed the obligatory duty upon them, thereafter they set forth to the ‘Iydgaah raising their voices n prayer to Me. I swear by My honour, by My Grace, by My High Position of greatness, that I shall surely answer the prayer of those people”. Thereafter Allah says (addressing the people) “Return, certainly I have forgiven your sins and have exchanged your evil deeds withs righteous ones”. Rasulullah S.W. SW said, “Those people then return (from the ‘Iydgaah) in forgiven state. (Bayhaqi in Shub’l eeman)
During The Rain
‘Two will not be rejected, Supplication when the Adhan (call of prayer) is being called, and at the time of the rain’. (Haakim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah)
‘Seek the response to your duaas when the armies meet, and the prayer is called, and when rain falls’ (reported by Imam al-Shafi’ in al-Umm, al-Sahihah #1469)
Three supplications will not be rejected: the supplication of the parent for his child, the supplication of the one who is fasting, and the supplication of the traveller. (Bayhaqi, Tirmidhi)
Duaa after praising Allah and giving salat on the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam in the tashahhud at the end of salat.
‘When anyone of you makes duaa, let him start by glorifying his Lord and praising Him, then let him send blessings upon the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam, then let him pray for whatever he wants’ (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi)
In another hadith; Baqiy ibn Mukhallid (RA) narrated that that the Messenger of Allah sallalaho alayhi wasallam said: ‘Every duaa is not responded to until one sends blessings upon the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam’ (Bayhaqi)
In another hadith; Umar (RA) narrated that the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam said: ‘Duaaa is detained between the heavens and the earth and no part of it is taken up until you send blessings upon your Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam’ (Tirmidhi)
After a person has finished his tashahhud and before saying the ‘salam’, supplication at this time is one likely to be responded to.
Ibn Mas’ud narrates: I was once praying, and the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam, Abu Bakr and Umar (were all present). When I sat down (in the final tashahhud), I praised Allah, then sent salams on the Prophet, then started praying for myself. At this, the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam said: ‘Ask, and you shall be given it! Ask, and you shall be given it!’ (Tirmidhi, Mishkaat)
Duaa on the Day of Arafat
‘The best supplication is the supplication on the day of Arafat’ (Tirmidhi and Muwatta Imam Malik)
The day of Arafat is the essence and pinnacle of Hajj. On this great and momentous day, millions of worshippers gather together on one plain, from every corner of the world, with only one purpose in mind – to respone to the call of their Creator. During this auspicious day, Allah does not refuse the requests of His worshippers.
Duaa of people after the death of a person
In a long hadith, Umm Salamah (RA) narrated that the Prophet sallalaho alayhi wasallam said, when Abu Salamah had just passed away, and had closed his eyes, ‘Do not ask for yourselves anything but good, for the angels will say ‘Ameen’ to all that you ask for. O Allah, forgive Abu Salamah, and raise his ranks among those who are guided.’ (Muslim, Abu Dawud, Musnad e Ahmad)
Duaa of the one fasting until he breaks his fast.
‘Three supplications will not be rejected (by Allah (SWT)), the supplication of the parent for his child, the supplication of the one who is fasting, and the supplication of the traveller.’ (Bayhaqi, Tirmidhi)
‘Three men whose duaa is never rejected (by Allah) are: when a fasting person breaks fast (in another narration, the fasting person until he breaks his fast), the just ruler and the one who is oppressed.'(Musnad e Ahmad, Tirmidhi)
When visiting the sick
‘When you visit the sick, or the dead then say good, because the angels say ‘Ameen’ to whatever you say’ (Muslim)
There are many other examples that can be found, inshallah your local ulema will be able to give a more thorough and detailed insight. Request for all to remember my family and I in your duaas. May Almighty Allah enable us to act upon this, ameen.